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Heart attack also called myocardial infarction occur as a result of complete or partial blockage of coronary artery. complete blockage of coronary artery causes STEMI which can be seen in ECG. Partial blockage causes NSTEMI .

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Build up of blood clot due to the rupture of coronary artery causes blockage .Moreover blockage can be due to the

  • spasm of coronary artery
  • shock
  • respiratory failure
  • severe anemia


in heart attack ,heart muscles remain deprived of nutrients and oxygen as a result turn leads to damage of heart tissues.


heart attack especially include chest pain or discomfort ,shortness of breath, nausea ,sweating, pain. Pain may also felt in arm , jaw , neck and back and is radiating pain.

Most importantly take heart attack symptoms seriously. Immediately seek medical attention right away if you suspect one. Indeed with the right treatment damage can be minimized

RISK FACTOR heart attack

In addition, risk factor of heart attack includes

  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • Family history
  • Stress


In addition of all that , pharmalogical and non pharmalogical treatment can manage heart attack.


non pharmalogical treatment of heart attack includes making changes in lifestyle like healthy diet getting regular exercise,quit smoking.Managing stress can help reduce heart attack risk as well.


In addition, pharmalogical treatment of heart attack includes statins, aspirin, blood pressure lowering drugs lower the risk of heart attack


heart attack can be diagnosed by;

  • History
  • STEMI can be diagnosed by ECG and cardiac marker like troponin
  • NSTEMI can be diagnosed by cardiac marker like serum troponin level
  • ECHO
  • Discomfort of substernal region and radiates to left arm ,left shoulder ,neck and jaw.
  • physical findings includes diaphoresis, pale and cool skin, third and fourth heart sounds, basilar rales and hypotension


Treatment of heart attack typically involves drugs that dissolve blood clot as well as reduce the risk of blood clot. In some case angioplasty or bypass surgery is necessary to restore the heart blood flow, like CABG and PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention) accompanied by balloon dilatation and stenting is widely used in revascularization of myocardium in patient

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